../Existentially-humanistic psychology on the post-soviet area. The history of development

I would like to present here the stories about «the meetings» of apprentices with the Master, about «the Way» to the existentialism; the stories which are live and spontaneous, dramatic and inspired in its essence. You see, most specialists (who work nowadays at existentially-humanistic methods) approached this field not by chance. In most cases they choose it consciously; their spiritual and individual way is full of difficulties and creativity. I find it interesting to show this energetic and appealing method, its main points; a special style, which marks the lives of those who made up their minds to follow the method. However, it was rather hard for me to find enough information on the topic. So this fact helped me to write the following review of 30 years of development of existentially-humanistic psychology on the post-soviet area.

Russian sources

The existentially-humanistic psychology in Russia was prepared by the very history of the country, by its orthodox traditions, by its best writers' (L.Tolstoy, A.Chekhov, F.Dostoyevskiy) books as well as by its thinkers who turned very often during their lives to the problems of the sense of life and death, freedom and responsibility, the phenomenon of faith ( A.Kozlov, V.Solovyov, L.Lopatin, N.Berdyaev, L.Shestov (35), S.Frank, E.Trubetskoy, R.Ivanov-Razumnik, M.Bakhtin (3,4), S.Bulgakov, P.Florenskiy, V.Vysheslavtsev and V.Rozanov (24) ). Dostoyevskiy, Berdyaev and Shestov's ideas contribute a lot to the develop European and American culture and philosophy and still keep influence representatives of existentially-humanistic methods from both continents. Russian art was always supposed to be exclusive and unique let's just recall Chaikovskiy's music, Russian paintings and poetry (especially the poetry of «the Silver Age»).

The religious-philosophical heritage with its huge experience of comprehension of spiritual problems (22) develops Russian psychology. Russian religious existentialism represented by Berdyaev and Shestov appears earlier than European; a powerful school of historic-philosophical analysis of existentialism keeps functioning even during the Soviet time (25).

In the Russian pedagogics of the early 20th century the ideal of the humane democratic school (which was aimed at the personality) was formulated by I.Gorbunov-Pasadov. According to him such school is based on the deep respect to the child's personality, on love, spiritual unity and mutual trust, ability to see in every child not only a personality but a live human soul with an endless spiritual world within it. Some Russian pedagogues keep develop the values of humanistic school during the period of unification and total ideologisation of Soviet education. K.Venttsel insists on the principles of unity and harmony in children's life at school as he wants the school to be a creative environment for a free man to grow up in. V.Sukhomlinsky's pedagogical system and practice of 50-60s continues Russian culturally-pedagogic tradition that is to trust children, to reject compulsion and punishment, to collaborate with kids, to work creative and to free your mind, to have the right to choose, to act, to behave, to find your own lifestyle and be responsible for your choice.

The soil for the contemporary Russian existentially-humanistic psychology was prepared by a number of outstanding native scientists. Among them can be called S.Rubinshtein who in his unfinished book «A human and the world» («Chelovek i mir») raised the problems of human's being, his inner world, the correspondence of ethics and ontology, sense of life and other existential questions (22, 23). Phenomenological humanistic position (1) which consisted of the special attention to the patient and of the great desire to understand his problems was formed by such psychiatrists as S.Mnukhin, V.Kagan (13), S.Konstorum (14), A.Svyadosch (36) etc.

Forming of the humanistic psychology in the USA
First contacts with Russia

Humanistic psychology appeared in the USA in the late 1950s; it aimed at building up a new methodology of cognition of a human so first of all it was against the power of scientifically-mechanistic approach that existed then in American psychology. Exactly from the point of view of resistance to psychoanalysis and behaviorism (so typical to this period of developing psychology in the USA) one can understand the opposition (made by G.Bugental) of the value of the rising humanistic psychology to the failure of the feudalism or the discovery of electricity.

The humanistic psychology obviously opposed itself to the scientific tradition striving to have the psychology explore some primitive mechanisms of reflexoral functioning (22). During this very period a number of European psychologists develop the concepts close in their essence to humanistic but only in the USA apart from theoretical course they are modified to the wide social movement that breaks the borders of psychology. When in 1961-1962 the Association for Humanistic Psychology of America (AHP) and the journal «Humanistic psychology» are founded the movement is transformed to the independent official branch of psychology aimed at the best human actions (22). The humanistic psychology in the USA developed so dramatically due to common social tendencies of that time: the climax of the protection of civil rights, public demonstrations, protest marches.

The humanistic psychology in the USA comes to its blossom in the late 1960s- early 1970s. In 1971 Stanley Creepner made his speech at the Academy of sciences in USSR. In his report he mentioned common with Soviet psychology points of view and methods of exploration of consciousness and human creative possibilities. In 11972 he visited Moscow again together with the members of AHP.

In Russia during this period one of the mainstreams of Soviet psychology - activistic approach was developed. It belongs not only to the humanistic problem but also to the rest Soviet scientific schools. Namely here native humanistic concepts were formed and later they were developed and transformed but not opposed to other schools as in America.

By 1983 when the project of Soviet-American collaboration was set up many famous psychologists (A.Maslow, S.Jurard, Buler, Sutich) had died. Nevertheless five delegations from AHP took part in the exchange of scientific experience and in friendly contacts within this project. The members of delegations were not only psychologists; speaking about geography the visits took place mostly in Leningrad, Moscow and Tbilisi. From the very start American part was more active however later on Soviet specialists usually came to annual conferences of AHP.

Existentially-humanistic ideas in the Russian science and practice in 1980s. First meetings with Victor Francle and Carl Rogers

The native psychology of 1980s is developing explorations of motivation and will in the paradigm of semantic regulation of activity (B.Bratus, I.Vasiliev, F.Vasiluk, B.Zeigarnic, V.Ivannikov, D.Leontiev, E.Eidman) (20). Personally-humanistic approaches in education are realized in pedagogic experiments by Amonashvili, Volkov, Krakovsky, Lysenkov, Schetinin, Shatalov (18). In 1984 Leontiev and Zinchenko's follower Fedor Vasiluk publishes his book «Psychology of experience» (in 1991 it is reedited in English by «Simon&Schuster»). Later on the theory of experience becomes the basis for the author's system «Comprehensive psychotherapy».

The frequency and the quality of contacts with foreign specialists have risen since the late 1980s when the USSR proclaims a new politics of openness, democracy and perestroika. The environment of perestroika characterized by indifference and denial of the former ideals hurts people and destroys their values. However native psychotherapy of 1980s is in very poor condition in comparison with psychology and pedagogics. Only medical supplies, auto training, rational psychotherapy and hypnosis were used then. «There were not so many ideas about the principles of work; we gathered them from the classical psychotherapy and from rare meetings with famous psychotherapists. It gave us the opportunity to take part in the holy process of forming psychotherapy.» (27)

Victor Francle's visit to Moscow in March 1987 becomes «the real event» for Russian psychiatry. The founder of «the third school of psychiatry in Vienna» brings to Russia the long-waited «immunity to nihilism» - the method of logo therapy (existential analysis). People from different corners of Russia want to listen to his 2 lectures at Moscow University (1).

At this time Soviet psychologists have the opportunity to get to know personally the undirective person-centered approach from its founder Carl Rogers who comes to the USSR twice. In September-October 1986 after the invitation by Matushkin Rogers with Ruth Sandford and Francis Meicy from AHP gives two client seminars in Moscow and Tbilisi. It was so hard to get to those seminars that even Rogers mentioned this dramatic situation in his article about the visit (33). Humanistic education, individual teaching and methods of stimulation of creativity were the main points at the seminars. Apart from the seminars Rogers organized two public meetings where almost 2000 specialists got acquainted with the person-centered approach to the therapy. Tomas Grining comes to the USSR four times.

These meetings form the first wave of Russian humanist-oriented and existential psychotherapists. «From such meetings with Rogers and Francle, Alexeichik and Satir, Yunova and Forverg Russian psychotherapy took its basis later developed to identity» (27).

Self-organized representatives of existentially-humanistic approaches: first Russian humanistic Associations

Rogers and Francle's visits give the impulse to the forming of the general and pedagogic psychology of initiative group in Research Institute to organize the association of humanistic psychology in the USSR. In autumn 1988 after the meeting with Murphy (the headmaster of Esalense Institute for development of human potential) some collaborators of Moscow University and the Center of human sciences form another initiative group (22) apart from the first. Besides the foreign collaborations the specific psychological problems of the Russians who faced the crash of their vital values made it possible to unite. It was necessary to join anyhow the psychologists interested in the humanistic topic; they saw in it the recourses for theoretical and practical work with vital problems of their contemporaries.

Finally in 1990 one year before the USSR crashes thanks to Tsapkin, Bratus, Schur, Vasilyuk and Slobodchikov the Soviet Association of Humanistic Psychology (AHP) (16) has been founded. It embodies the dream of spreading humanistic ideals and values among the professionals, the dream of uniting of theory and practice, of those people who realize in their lives and in their work the conceptions of spirituality, freedom and the ways to find out the sense of life. B.Bratus was elected the president of the AHP; V.Tsapkin and V.Maykov were elected vice-presidents; V.Schur was the executive director.

Some thematical sections within the Association start to function, among them the section of Christian anthropology, the section of humanistic psychotherapy and medicine headed by V.Tsapkin and the section of existential psychology and psychotherapy headed by D.Leontiev. They begin to collect the materials from the conference of AHP those must represent its programme edition. The money for this purpose is given by the Association of Sciences of the USSR according to the project «Humanistic psychology: history, methodology and perspective» (22).

In 1991 and 1992 the Soviet Association of Humanistic Psychology together with the Center of psychology and psychotherapy (headed by F.Vasilyuk), Saybrook Institute (San Francisco) and the Association of humanistic psychology of Great Britain organize the first and the second International conferences on humanistic and transpersonal psychology (16). At these conferences Russian experts get acquainted with such eminent scientists as A.Georgy and S.Creepner. A number of representatives of Russian association (V.Tsapkin, V.Maikov, D.Leontiev) visit the conferences of AHP in the USA.

The geography of Russian scientific centers that spread the humanistic methods widens. The AHP appears in St.Petersburg and is headed by V.Kagan. In 1991 a regional conference on the problems of humanistic psychology takes place in Sverdlovsk. In September 1992 V.Francle comes to Moscow for the second time and reads a lecture in the Moscow State University (22). Moscow psychotherapist journal springs up at the same time.

Not so long before the AHP appears in March 1989 the IPA (Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia) starts to function. «The lack of progress and democracy in psychiatric help» caused it, that is why the main goal of the IPA is to help Russian psychiatry to become humanistic. The wide range of collaborations with medical, psychological, religious and social organizations, with Mass Media and some governmental structures aim at purification of psychiatry and restoration of trust to psychiatry in general and to psychiatrists in particular. In autumn 1989 IPA becomes the first association in USSR that entered the World Psychiatric Association.

IPA elaborates the principle of a new scientific paradigm in psychiatry. The practical scientific work is based on the acknowledgment of the fundamental character of phenomenological method by Carl Jaspers and being the essential part of human's natural rights (43).

The «Society of clinical psychotherapists» (M.Burno) is created attached to IPA, there are annual Kon storumsky's readings, the group «Philosophy and psychiatry» (E.Bezzubova) begins to function together with psychotherapeutic theatre and regular Melekhov's seminar «Psychiatry and problems of spiritual life» (B.Voskresensky and Z.Krakhmalnikova) (43).

Since 1991 with the support of the Association the «Independent Psychiatric Journal» has been published, «The Ways of Renovation of Russian psychiatry» has been published since 1992 and a free edition of «Information list of IPA» exists since 1995 (37). Since 1992 IPA has been organizing educational seminars and monthly clinical open analysis headed by leading experts (since 1996).

First serious educational projects

The early 90s turned out to be a period of forming professional associations and so-called thematical «circles». This phenomenon stimulated by the active political processes in the country was widening the concept of humanistic psychology. At the same time powerful unofficial groups consisted of the most thinking and active intelligent people were developing. Such groups revealed the great leading and intellectual power of Russian scientists, their ambitions and goals. However this period was broken by the economical chock of 1992 which caused the problems of survival that excluded the spare time circles and societies (22).

A number of training and seminar projects are actively prepared on the post-soviet area (mid 90s). Corresponding to the time they are considered to be new centers for the psychologic and pspsychotherapist cooperations (22). At this time important seminars on different parts of psychology are organized all over the country. Periodically the representatives of psychological mainstreams unite t such annual conferences as Smolensky and Kustanaisky. However besides these eclectic programmes some serious educational projects function.

High school of humane psychotherapy

In three years the president of AHP B.Bratus gives all his authorities to V.Krindach who transforms the association to the «free educational center with many specialities aimed at spiritual practice». In 1994 with the help of V.Krindach and B.Bratus (AHP) the High School of humane psychotherapy is founded. They selected the students according to their ability to support, their openheartedness, cultural and intellectual level and psychological endurance. A special attention was paid to the gifts and talents («something with what God gifted them») that a psychotherapist either has or hasn't got; they were looking for the natural (not professional) interest to the patient. V.Krindach considered these traits the most important in the success of therapy opposing doctor's character to the psychotherapist methods. To the latter he added «Schweizer's respect to the life», «the polyphony of the depth» and «the tolerance to the different». The main idea of the School according to Krindach is the integrative teaching of psychotherapy as «the most adequate reaction to the vacuum of psychological culture in Russia». It was planned that the teaching of psychology at School should «leave the scientific method in psychology and approach the humane method» (16).

International school of psychotherapy, consultation and group examination

In 1995 in St.Petersburg the Institute of psychotherapy and consultation «Harmony» (1988) creates the first 3-years programme of International school of psychotherapy, consultation and group examination. Both Russian and foreign specialists teach at School. The basis of the programme consists of the principles of existential and humanistic methods by Rogers, Yung, Maslow, Francle, Pearls, May etc. (51)

A long period of preparation preceded the inauguration of International school in Russia. From the beginning of the 90s the Institute of psychiatry and consultation «Harmony» collaborated with Trans-Cultural Network for Psychology and Education (TCN). Uniterra Foundation (USA) took part in the next project of the School.

V. E .Kagan, the doctor of medical science, one of the members of the leadership of the Psychotherapy and Consulting Institute «Harmony» has become the chairman of the Russian Guardian council of the International School of Psychotherapy. Viktor Kagan has written more than 400 articles. He is an active partner of «the Psychological newspaper», a member of the association of Children's psychotherapists and psychologists (also a member of the leadership of its St-Petersburg department), a vice-president of the Independent Psychiatrical Association of Russia. He is also a co-founder and the first president (1990-1999) of the Saint-Petersburg association of Humanistic Psychology.

Apart from a project of the International School, the Institute «Harmony» regularly organizes different important international conferences. «The annual international conference on solving conflicts» every year has a great success. There are a lot of seminars where many specialists from the USA, Canada, Western and Eastern Europe take part. Apart from it the Institute organizes the first in Russia Telephone of urgent psychological aid for kids, teenagers, adults and parents. Furthermore the Institute prepares specialists of that sphere by its own. Now the Institute is becoming a large educationally-consulting center. The quality of the educational programs of the Institute «Harmony» has achieved a deserved recognition.

It is becoming a full member of the Consortium of psychological educational programs in the USA.

Western-Eastern school of practical existentialism.

In 1996 in the Institute of humanistic and existential psychology (Lithuania) the teaching of existential therapy was begun. The Institute was established by students and followers of Alexander Alekseichik(1), founder of a western-european school of practical existentialism, author of two methods called «intensive therapeutic life» and «existential bibliotherapy».

The curriculum for the Institute is being made by a professor Rimanata Kochunas.

A lot of psychotherapists from Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Byelorussia, Russia, Ukraine, Israel come to a small town called Birshtonas- the center of western-european existentialism. The first group finishes the program in 1999.

The coverage of the Institute is spreading. In 2003 on a basis of the Institute of humanistic and existential psychology a new program for teaching supervisers opens. In 2002-2004 a new program "Existential therapy&quottogether with All-Russian Professional Psychotherapeutic League on basic level opens in Moscow. In April 2005 forms the first group in Surgut.

In 2000 in Birshtonas the Western-European Association of existential therapy begins its work (WEAET).This organization joins many practicing psychologists, psychotherapists, and all the people who are interested in it. In 2003 WEAET becomes a member of European Association of Psychotherapy.

The disciples of Alekseichik spread the existential education even to the South of Russia. In spring 1999 the Institute of existential consulting and comprehension of religious experience heading by Semen Eselson opens in the town of Rostov-na-Donu. Philosophically the Institute is based on Hydeggeriance existentialism and religious philosophy (8). In contrast to the students in Lithuania came to the institute with a high level of knowledge in the sphere of existential therapy, the students in Rostov-na-Donu came to realize their potential, wisdom, horizons of their existence. Many of them were not connected somehow with philosophy before the institute. That feature cast its shadow on a curriculum and the method of education by itself. The first aim was to enhance their acuity of feeling, thinking, comprehending the life as the unique one. The main concept was the self-determination of their students, and only after that mastering in terms, themes and methods.

In 2002 by an initiative of Semen Eselson and in collaboration with the Western-European association of existential therapy the journal «Existential tradition: philosophy, psychology, psychotherapy» begins to issue in Rostov-na-Donu. In that journal there are both: the articles of existential psychologists and psychotherapists from the former USSR and other countries- Poland, the USA

, Great-Britain, the Netherlands. There is a developing process with a journal printed in Great-Britain «Existential Analysis». Since September 2003 the journal is an official international edition of the Western -European Association of existential therapy. In the same year a new serial edition «Existential measuring in consulting and psychotherapy» appears(the author and compiler is Julia Abakumova-Kochunene).

The institute of existential psychology and life-creation named after Liontiev.

With the object of support, popularization, developing and also in order to join all the schools of existential psychology and psychologically oriented philosophical anthropology: European (L.Binsvanger, M.Boss, V.Frankl, M.Buber), american(P.Tillih, R.May, G.Biugental, I.Yalom, S.Maddy), Russian (M.M.Bahtin, S.L.Rubentien, M.K. Mamardashvili) - in 2001 the Institute of existential psychology and life creation named after Leontiev opens in Moscow.

D.Leontiev is a director of the institute, the doctor of psychological sciences, professor of a faculty of psychology in MGU, a member of an International Society of existential psychology and psychotherapy (ISEPP), an author of more than 350 publications concerning the psychology of a person. He wrote «The studies of psychology of a personality», «Introduction to the psychology of arts», «The psychology of sense». He was in charge of Russian publications of such authors as V.Frankl, E.Fromm, A.Maslow, K.Hrony, K.Levin, G.Olport, R.May and many others. Such prominent scientists as Kagan, Bratchenko, and Sosland formed part of the staff of the institute. Thanks to their work the Institute is now one of the most important centers of existentialism in Russia.

Popularizing and developing of methods.
Educational, publishing and content-projects.

In 1998 the first educational program based on the author's method «The art of psychotherapy» by J.Budgental starts its functioning. The education is held on the basis of the faculty of MGU named after Lomonosov. From the American part the organizer is the International Institute of Humanistic Studies. That program finally appears in Russia after long studies of the conception of existential therapy of James Budgental .The conception was presented by Derby Rahil came to the second international conference of humanistic psychology held in Moscow.

After that presentation Derby Rail and her colleagues come to Russia in order to take part in the special seminars. On the eve of an inauguration of the educational program in Russia, in 1997, Russian psychologists and psychotherapists make a personal acquaintance with James Budgental and his colleagues on the conference of «Existential humanistic psychotherapy» held in San-Francisco.

Later on, a lot of programs developed by disciples of James Budgental concerning existential therapy open in many Institutes. For example, a program of S.Pavlova and M.Yudina in the Moscow Institute of Psychotherapy and clinical Philosophy; a program of Korablina in the Institute of Practical Philosophy. Since 2005 the educational program «the art of psychotherapist»(1987) by J.Budgental is held in Kiev.

From all over the world there still come a lot of new methods, new institutes open.

For example The Russian-Austrian Institute of existentially-analytical psychology and psychotherapy founded in collaboration with GLE-International, Russian and Austrian psychologists and psychotherapists. Later on in the institute of Practical psychology in the High School of Economics heading by the professor Orlov opens the program certificated by GLE. Many representatives of the school, studied abroad are developing their practice now in Russia. Letunovsky, for instance, is guided by the ontology of Martin Hidegger and existentially-initial therapy of Calfrid Durkheim.

International and All-Russian conferences actively promote the process of developing and spreading of the methods. Among them it must be mentioned the «Annual International conference on solving conflicts», which is organized since 90s by the Institute of psychotherapy and consulting -«Harmony» (Saint-Petersburg). Other conferences that should be mentioned are «All-Russian conference on existential psychology» (Moscow), a conference called «Existential measuring in consulting and psychotherapy»(HEPI, Birshtonas), «Existential questions in psychology and psychotherapy»(Latvia), and finally the International scientific conference «A problem of sense in studies of a human being» dedicated to 100 years of Viktor Frankl(The Institute of existential psychology and life-creation).

Thanks to a work of native publishers, «Smysl» for instance, opened as early as in 90s a grate variety of books and information is easy of access to our compatriots. Many people already know the representatives of humanistic and existential psychology (Olport, Murray, Kelly, Maslow, Rogers, Boss, May, Yalom, Frankl).

As the amount of the followers of the existential method increases rapidly, the necessity of thematic publications and availability of main works emerge. As a request to such a necessity a concept of making one general interactive space appears. That will help all the people who are interested in the information of existential and humanistic methods to find it.

The realization of that conception became the site HPSY.RU, opened in 2001.Now it is the leader of thematic sites by its popularity, published works and coverage.

During 5 years in this site there is an in-depth selection of issues, publications, books, reports that are open free of charge. There is also all the information about conferences and events. A special section is dedicated to the terms and the founders of the humanistic and existential methods, such as Sartr, Harold Maslow, Fromm, Rogers, and Viktor Frankl. The site is forming like an additional method of «an optional self-education» and forming of self-thinking. That is why the edition also has some extra information about the history of psychology, philosophical and Christian anthropology, and humanistic problems.

For completeness there is even the space for an opposed side. The main members of the project are the authors of the edition, practicing psychologists and psychotherapists, organizers of conferences, professors of universities and authors of educational programs.


Existential and humanistic methods successfully take the roots in our Russian midst, joining with traditions of psychological and philosophic ideas. It is becoming wider, more developed and forming part of culturally-historic context.

Integrative methods which are common for a Russian psychological consulting and psychotherapeutic school are widely developed now. Among them we should notice trialogical method arose from the works of Rogers in the field of client centered psychotherapy. It is developing on basis of the center of psychological consulting «Trialog» (Moscow), founded by the initiative of Orlov in 2000. There is a number of our schools with humanistic orientation which develop the ideas of non-classical psychology (Vygotsky, Elkonin, Asmolov, Dorfman), organic psychology(Zinchnco), iconic psychology(Genisaretsky), Christian psychology(Florenskaya,Nichiporov), and also humanistic paradigm in psychology(Buyakas, Vasiluk, Vorobyeva, Rozin, Puzirev), phenomenological psychology(Olishevsky) and many others. Vasiluk, for instance, is known for his studies in the field of methodology of psychology, psychotherapy and Christian psychology. Existentially-oriented methods are widely developed(Liontiev, Znakov, Dorfman, Lavruhin, Nikiforov).The psychology of motivation is amplified by the problematic of choice, freedom, will, life purposes, future prospects, opportunities, autonomy and self-determination. All that methods widely use the whole spectrum of knowledge beginning from the classical psychology and philosophy up to the orthodox asceticism and other religious practices.

Russian humanistic paradigm of education which consider a man, a culture and a society as the main means of forming infant self-development, promote personally-oriented educational program. Right after Rogers, a lot of representatives of Russian psychology are involved from the sphere of individual psychology and psychological consulting into the sphere of education, using a wider consulting paradigm. One of the brightest representatives of this school is Bratchenco. His high aspiration for joining psychological and educational interests is forming in the idea of humanistic examination of education.

In 2005 in the Internet a whole series of sites concerning existential and humanistic theme is forming: the sites of Moscow, Minsk, Riga consulting centers, LebensWelfPhenomen.Ru project, the site of Liontiev is getting renewed. A lot of theoretical and methodical literature concerning humanistic and existential philosophy, psychology and psychotherapy is printed. The main part of psychological faculties include into their curriculum existential and humanistic psychology. More people learn about the main philosophical principles every day.

Against the importance and high demand of the specialists in the sphere of existential and humanistic philosophy, a great number of doubtful and controversial ideas still arise. Among them, for example, ones try to substitute Christian culture for psychotechnics of «spiritual development»; or a declaration of a so called «integrative psychotherapy», mixing up existential and humanistic rhetoric. Risking and mostly baseless substitution, giving out a strange mix of techniques for «existential» art-, body-orientated therapy, energetic cure, shaman practice, or existential NLP - all that factors are the costs of a high popularity of existentialism. Here also it should be mentioned the distortion of purposes of a humanistic psychotherapy, developing the alternative methods of curing and rehabilitation of patients emerged in the saenthological antipsychotherapy with its views against psychotherapists and traditional methods of curing.

In spite of being widespread, the existential and humanistic psychology and psychotherapy stand today only at the beginning of their way in Russia. There is no doubt that the present concepts elaborated later by cultural, psychological, philosophical, theological traditions will be impulses for developing new Russian and foreign concepts, currents and methods. It is quite difficult to tell definitely what they will be and how they will be formed. Who knows, maybe today «In a term of existential psychology there is a process of forming a new philosophical praxis»?(24)

It will be nice to finish our brief overview by words of Budgental «…I wonder how many people want to find out what relationship that methods have got between themselves, in trying to find the ultimate truth. Every one of us looks at the mountain of mystery from his point of view and describes what he sees .Sometimes we observe absolutely different things, but it is still a mountain. As much we listen to each other, we acquire more and more the sense of a single whole, without embracing it ever all».

Andrewshin V.V.